Egyptian Rule
The island was under de facto Egyptian rule from 1822 onwards, when Egyptian troops arrived to quash the rebellion that had begun the previous year. In 1831 the island was officially ceded to Mehmet Ali, Viceroy of Egypt, who was comparatively successful in restoring order and guaranteeing harmony between Christians and Muslims. Having disarmed the population and reorganized the judicial system, the new administration turned its attention to public works projects. Roads, bridges and fortifications were constructed and repaired, the Venetian port was dredged and the aqueduct extended.

Yet these projects were funded by means of burdensome taxation and an attempt to confiscate land and impose state monopolies on certain commodities. In 1833, these measures provoked intense protests on the part of the people: "...and having doubled the charatsi (poll tax) and increased it fourfold from 4 and 8 groats, which he had initially promised us, he is now considering increasing it twentyfold." (Report by the Christians assembled at Mournies in Kydonia to the Great Powers, 20th September 1833). Despite quelling reactions, the Egyptian administration was forced to revoke several of the harshest measures. In July 1840, on account of the Egyptian-Ottoman War, the Great Powers decided to return Crete to Ottoman rule.

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Mehmet Ali, 1800 (Laroche)
Part of a copy of the Vakai Girit ["Cretan Daily"] newspaper published under Egyptian rule on Crete, 1831
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