The Emergent Bourgeoisie
The closing decades of the 19th century saw the formation of emergent bourgeois classes in Heraklion, with increased spending power and a high standard of living. Their ranks included merchants, factory and small industry proprietors and high-ranking officials in the new bureaucracy, all of whom increasingly turned to Europe in search of model lifestyles and behaviours. The presence of British troops in the town and the daily coming and going of Greek and foreign visitors accelerated this whole process.

In "decent" Heraklion society, the French language and European good manners became the established norm. Ever increasing numbers of young people from Heraklion went on to further study at universities in Greece and abroad. Though also feeling the influences arising from the new state of affairs, lower social classes were not in a position to follow the course of Europeanisation at the same pace.



1898  |  1899  |  1900  |  1902  |  1905  |  1906  |  1908  |  1909  |  1910  |  1911  |  1912  |  1913
In early 20th century Heraklion, market streets were paved and Cretan produce was in abundance (R. Behaeddin, No 23, Vikelaia Municipal Library, Heraklion)
Kalokairinou Ave in the time it was Phaistou St., a bustling commercial thoroughfare, 1900 (R. Behaeddin, No 77, Vikelaia Municipal Library, Heraklion)
A group of upper-middle class friends in the early 20th century (R. Behaeddin, Ioannis M. Tzanis Collection)
Dimitrios Kavallakis and family in the late 19th century (Athina S. Bourlotou Archive, Historical Museum of Crete, S.C.H.S, Heraklion)
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