The ditch surrounding earthworks was designed to keep the enemy as far from the enceinte as possible, and thus formed an essential, integral part of any fortifications. Before the bastion system was employed, the ditch was filled with water to form a moat aimed at further inhibiting any attempt to get near the main fortifications, though that around Chandax was always dry.
The eastern section of the enceinte and ditch, with the Franciscan friary church in the foreground, 1901 - 1902 (photograph: G. Marayiannis)