The changes in warfare that led to the redesigning of the enceinte rendered the moat ineffective as a form of defence. It was thus dug out to form a wider, deeper ditch that increased the distance between the warring parties and kept the enemy even further from the walls. In addition, in peacetime the dry ditch could be used as land for growing crops or even as pasture for grazing animals.
The Venetian enceinte at Chandax - section of ditch between the Jesus and Martinengo Bastions, 1900 - 1902 (photograph: G. Marayiannis)